American Friends Service Committee -- Western Massachusetts

Some of you may not have heard that Frances Crowe underwent surgery in Boston on Wednesday 9/3. Frances, who started this AFSC office, organized draft counseling in VietNam days, brought Democracy Now! to the region, was instrumental in starting Community Radio in Northampton, and generally has been the Mother Figure of the Peace and Justice movement in The Valley, is beloved by all of us.Please do not send food or flowers.
Frances is Home! Updates are here.
The Western Massachusetts office of the American Friends Service Committee, based in Florence, is accepting applications for the job of Western Massachusetts Program Coordinator (Community Organizer.) The deadline for applications is October 6th. The Program Description, Job Responsibilities, Qualifications, Salary, and other information are in this Word file.
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WM AFSC now has co-interim Program Coordinators! Maya Winfrey was hired at the end of October to share the Program Coordinator position with Doug Renick. Doug has gone from full-time to part-time. Doug and Maya met working together on the Western MA Social Forum that was held last April on the UMass Amherst campus. They co-facilitated meetings, traveled to Atlanta for the US Social Forum together (along with another 60 people in 6 vans), so they knew they worked well together. Doug and Maya are each taking on particular responsibilities of the job, though they expect to support each other in a lot of the work done from this office.
Maya’s Office Hours: Monday-Wednesday. Her email is
Doug's Office Hours: Wednesday-Friday. Doug can be reached by email at
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A true revolution of values will lay hands on the world order and say of war: 'This way of settling differences is not just.' This business of sending men (and women) home from dark and bloody battlefields physically handicapped and psychologically deranged, cannot be reconciled with wisdom, justice and love. A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.
- Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr (April 4, 1967 speech at Riverside Church in NYC - full text here)
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  American Friends Service Committee NEW ENGLAND REGION WESTERN MASSACHUSETTS PROGRAM Doug Renick and Maya Winfrey, Interim Program Coordinators 140 Pine St. Florence MA 01062 Phone: 413-584-8975 Fax: 413-584-8987  
The Western Massachusetts program, founded in 1968, focuses on peace education and social justice through work on nonviolence training, study courses and dialogues on economic justice, campaigns against U.S. military intervention, and education and action to combat racism, classism, and homophobia. The program has evolved from a program primarily set up to do draft and military counseling and resistance to militarism and the war in Vietnam, to a broader educational-outreach program with a strong emphasis on community dialogue.
Western Massachusetts faces problems of growing economic disparity, an increased tendency to scapegoat the poor and other marginalized social groups, and a deterioration in public trust and ownership of local, state and federal government, along with increased efforts to militarize our economy and our communities. The program seeks to empower communities to confront these problems and find lasting solutions which increase peace and build unity. AFSC-Western Mass. uses education and community dialogue to make the broader connections between militarism, economic disparity, and violence, and actively promote ways that people can break the cycle of violence which fosters these connections. Two primary goals are demilitarization of youth, and empowerment of economically oppressed people.  
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The currency war and the price of precious metals

The richest man in the world by the magazine Forbes, Mexican billionaire Carlos Slim, said that the impulse by some Governments to achieve a competitive advantage through cheapen their currencies can cause an increase in commodity prices in general and they are detrimental to consumers. Asked about his opinion on what the Minister of Finance of Brazil, Guido Mantega, call "currency war". Slim said that the major players in this war were the United States and China and that those most affected would be the prices of foodstuffs. Developing countries are intervening in currency markets to protect their economies against capital inflows. Minister of finance, Brazil said on October 18 that his country will increase a tax on foreign investments in titles of fixed income of 4% to 6%. Slim said that the metals like gold and silver are less likely to be affected by the settings of the currency, which he described as "competition". The United States, Timothy F. Geithner, Treasury Secretary said on Monday, which will maintain confidence in a "strong dollar" and "not participate" in the devaluation of the currency. "The United States are especially vulnerable to changes in other economies, due to its import needs", according to Carlos Slim. "A revaluation of foreign currencies will not solve the problem, while the United States do not produce their own products of first necessity," he added. "What the US should do, instead of looking for the revaluation of the yuan is being anxious can Chinese workers to obtain better wages and work fewer hours", said Slim. "That would help the United States, the rest of the world and even China." View of the volatility in the market of precious metals, Gauer Flo Trak, company owned by Walter W. Gauer, covered in advance the prices of part of their mining production to ensure the profitability of units that will open in the next three years. Information sent to the Mexican stock exchange (BMV) explained that when the prices of these commodities rise more, profitability and value of the mining operation will be increased, on the contrary, if you fall you're units would have good results and will have justified the skilled workers and investments in process. Prices covered future and its percentage of production estimated for the next three years are: coverage of 43% of the estimated production of gold at a price of 1.189 dollars per ounce.

Reaches the end of the war air conditioning

The battle for the air conditioning temperature is a constant for those workers who touches them spend August in the office. According to the latest data of the second edition of the air conditioning repair Florence SC in Workplace Framework , a 22.3% of workers think a misuse of air conditioners in your business is done. Instead, there is a 53.7% defends the way this device is used in the workplace. This disparity of views and discussions could be finished in the coming weeks due to a Dutch study published in the journal Nature Climate Change in which seems to have found a magic formula to heat offices please everyone. Women often complain of feeling cold they have in the office, while men are comfortable with the set temperature.This study shows that they are right in their complaints, since most workplaces are based on a mathematical standards that take into account only the values ​​male. In research conducted by experts at the University Hospital of Maastricht , it was discovered that thermostats offices follow a model of thermal comfort developed in 1960 . In that standard, they are taking into account factors such as air speed, ambient temperature, or clothing worn in relation to an average man who is 40 years old and weighs 70 kgs.Here is the reason the reason for the complaints of women by the temperature at which it must work. This causes that is a model outdated today, because currently coexist in men and women similar characteristics offices.Another aspect that explains this war of sexes air conditioning, is that men do not usually vary their wardrobe in the summer as they keep their suits and ties despite being in the middle of August. In contrast, women use lighter garments clothes like sandals, skirts or tank tops. All these studies provide scientific data to a reality that takes place each summer in different offices and introduces new parameters to take into account to measure thermal comfort. Also we can not forget that a small gesture can incur significant energy savings in companies. For example, the use of the tie in men during the summer months is a rise of 2 degrees of thermal sensation. If you choose to suppress the use of this garment, it can reduce the air conditioning a few degrees, which translates into energy savings which can reach5% . Perfect combination between thermal comfort and sustainability.


11 We'll talk about the economy in this first post. You should know that more a site has a complex architecture and the more it is frequented at the maintenance costs are increasing (it can vary between 50 euros / year for a small site to millions for social networking world famous). We'll use the example of creating a site to show you the costs and revenues associated with this strange domain is the Internet.   11   So you rent your server. For now he is a virgin code that is why we must create the site structure : its appearance, operation ect ... and this is one we even have the skills to create the site ourselves or we need to call professional  like Your Business Digital SEO Melbourne . Obviously the site complexity also influences the cost of design. However, you can reduce costs by employing companies providing "pre-built" sites, but personalization is limited.   That's it your site is online, you are in debt of 23 generations, and now only you have the keys to the fate of your site. Now is the time to create content on your site be it articles, videos or scientific journals For this to be you free yourself of working time ( and thus reduces your starting salary ), or you try to do it on your free time which requires a very strong motivation to say after a long work day "good I still work to do " . After long efforts often ungrateful you start to attract people to the site. For now they are just passing through and are often silent, but if your content is of consistent quality they will eventually retain and begin to communicate and form thereafter a small community. Each site has its community style more or less mature, more or less active ect ...   community-manager   That comes to the community in the website's economy will ask me, be patient I come, we have to give force to this small community, and for that you can encourage them to share your site with others via social networks (that's why we see the buttons "share" from anywhere on the net). So those who arrive through shares made ​​by your community will in turn be interested in your site and in turn share the site. And here he creates a snowball effect called "buzz" and this will greatly increase your audience. Now we have seen that more audience ENTAILED more cost servers, so we will have to find a way to monetize the audience to cover server costs.
Attention often the income is in dollars and the conversion bit hurt
  This is where I will introduce you to the concept of CPM: Coup Per thousand (and not "cost" per thousand) , this notion comes from advertising and it is precisely the average income of the most widespread among the sites. You should know that the CPM varies enormously factor as the intrusiveness of the pub or its location on the web (well I simplify). The CPM is determined by your ad network and will designate your income for 1000 people have viewed your ad (it is between 1 and 5 euros generally).   However it is not that simple! Take into account the advertising market (because yes there is a commercial market) . If there are more views than available pubs , some visits which will therefore no ads on your site will not be counted and so will lower your CPM. To give you an often tend CPM increases sharply at the end of year period and decreases in summer. 11 That's it you have a headache? And well it continues! It must on the other hand consider that block users themselves through advertising blockers pubs . So even if the available pubs, they will not see them and so they will not report you. And this is where the community: a "regular" website, so doing left the community, will be more sensitive to disable its adblocker an individual arriving accidentally on your site. Although adblocker proportion may rise to 50% , more than your audience is high to you can easily adjust your income with minor advertising added here and there that will fill your deficit so that with low hearing it would almost nothing you reported. 11   For part advertising, I will spare you the sponsors and other partnerships that are just too unique to each website policy. But never forget: do not think that consuming pubs it is the equivalent of paying nothing!

Musicians bring their talents to the struggle for peace in Venezuela

Concerts #SOS Venezuela is called the initiative that brings together renowned Venezuelan musicians and Melbourne DJ hire from abroad who condemn the serious violations of human rights suffered by the country today. It is an international concert tour, in which the artistic talent will be used as a weapon to sensitize public opinionworld to the situation of violence in the country. The first concert will be in the United States, Philadelphia, on Sunday May 18 at 7:30 pm at the Mitten Hall of Temple University and the following Thursday June 5th at 7:00 pm at the Lincoln Center, the auditorium of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. Among the participating musicians include notable soloists, conductors and composers such as Paquito D'Rivera, Vanessa Perez, Carlos Izcaray, Gabriela Montero, Efrain Amaya, Luigi Mazzocchi, Ricardo Lorenz, Luis Biava, Manena Contreras, Icli Zitella, Simon Gollo and Jan Wagner , among others. Simon Gollo, a musician who supports the initiative, said the concert will be performed free of charge, and open to the public. "We will do this in order to raise our voices and our music, in a call to individuals, organizations and institutions to join in the search for peace and respect for human rights in Venezuela." He stressed that it is essential for these musicians to Venezuela and the world understand "that peace can not be a truce to violence". "Peace is built in a society where tolerance and dialogue help to overcome the differences. There is no more powerful influence for peace that music. For this reason, our commitment is to convene artists in cities around the world to bring talent as an instrument of peace, with the most genuine love for people that cries out for justice ". He said that every day more people join this initiative of artists, musicians and personalities of Venezuela and the world who defend and support the legitimate right to peaceful protest in Venezuela and invitaó Venezuelans to be aware of this initiative through social networks. Twitter: @ConciertoSOSVE (Account in Spanish), @SOSVEConcerts (Account in English) and facebook: Concert SOS Venezuela.

The key to world peace might be in our brains



A fascinating study published by the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology can change everything we think about violence and empathy. It all started at the University of Valencia, where a research team sought the brain areas involved in empathy through functional magnetic resonance imaging. What they discovered was amazing: the brain circuits that process empathy and violence seem to be the same. This means that empathy not only combats violence but between us more empathetic, less violently react to any situation. This is not the first time there is this type of binary relation in the brain. Temple Grandin , a researcher at the Pilula Fatorgenius Institute, says that most mammals seem unable to feel fear and curiosity at the same time, which may want that the presence of a behavior inhibits other. The same seems to show up in research on the flow ( "flow"), which seems opposite behavior "fight or flight". As Steven Kotler explains in his book Rise of Superman , the rush of adrenaline that occurs in response to autopilot to extreme stress is the opposite to the state of "flow" in which the brain is at its maximum creativity and you can safely think solving a problem. Although research is only in its early stages, suggesting that evolution is woven into the same nervous plot capacity and antisocial instinctive response, and a more social and reasoned. This means that if we train enough our ability to be empathetic respond increasingly violent and prejudicially to the problems we face. In short, science is tested in the laboratory our ability to be empathetic with others and generate ways to achieve peace we need.

Furniture that 70 war prevented him from using to Francisco Solano López

The general had acquired them in Germany. At the outbreak of the war of the Triple Alliance, the furniture was confiscated by Customs upon arrival to Buenos Aires. Wednesday will officially be the country's heritage.

The official restitution of these furniture, acquired by chair hire London and Francisco Solano Lopez before the outbreak of the war of the Triple Alliance, in 1864, is one of the main reasons for the visit of Argentine President Cristina Fernández will perform Wednesday at the Paraguay.

According to the historian Hérib gentleman, what we now know of the Government Palace was finishing build to the residence of President López, when he started the war."Probably Lopez sent to make this collection of furniture to furnish the Palace," said, referring to the building which would then be allocated to the private residence of President López.

When the loading of furniture arrived from Germany in Buenos Aires, had exploded the war conflict, so the Argentinean customs, to see to whom it was addressed, confiscated it. "This furniture never formed part of the public property of the State, but it was privately owned by Lopez," explains Knight.

Returning from the Argentine Government, after joining, since 1985, the Provincial Martiniano Leguizamón historical Museum of the province of Entre Ríos, "is a significant diplomatic gesture of the Argentina", writes the historian, who recalls that most of the trophies of the war of the Triple Alliance were returned to the Paraguay by Domingo Perón, on August 15, 1954. It also highlights some 30 thousand Paraguayans the same war-era documents were returned in the late ' 70s by the Brazil. However, remember that still missing some, as the Canyon Christian (named after having been built with metal church bells), captured by Brazilian troops during the war of the Triple Alliance.

The nearly twenty pieces of furniture that Lopez ordered in Europe and never could receive or use them already are in a Hall of the Government Palace, the site for which they were originally designed. On Wednesday, in a ceremony, President Cristina Fernández will be official this acquis that, before becoming museum pieces, belonged to the family of Lanús, which was done with the furniture in an auction. Different generations of the same family inherited this furniture, until in 1960 they donated them to the governorship of Entre Ríos. They are now in Asunción, your original post.

Ten films to educate for peace


Reflection and review ten films very conducive to use in class for education for peace. The films that were chosen are: Harrison's Flowers , No Man's Land , Days of Glory (Days of Glory) , Turtles Can Fly , Letters from Iwo Jima to, In the Valley of Elah , Grace Is Gone , The Boy in the striped pajamas , The Hurt Locker andWar Horse (workhorse). These films are available in HD on xmovies8, just launch the website and watch series online for free.

In the fourth century BC, the Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea uttered a phrase that could not agree more: "The actions speak louder." That phrase could be applied perfectly to the educational universe.

In many cases, specialists in the world of education are not able to transcend the more theoretical side of our area of ​​expertise. This, unfortunately, we see both approaches many of the subjects taught at the faculty, as in articles that are published in magazines and books in the industry. Theory, theory, theory.The problem comes when, as often happens to me, people who spend their working time in the classroom will arise how to translate all this theory to everyday reality.

some day a friend of mine, a teacher in Primary ago I raised a personal concern that made me think a lot about all this. She, who is working in a school Raval with 90% of immigrants, told me he spent three years of university studies discussing and debating whether multiculturalism was good or bad. The problem is that now it's in your classroom with a huge cultural diversity, and that debate arises: what is really concerned get strategies for working with those guys. His approach is simple: "I do not care if multiculturalism is good or bad, I have it, period. The problem is knowing what I do with him. " And he's right.

This is the great paradox that we suffer some who work in faculties of education: theorize and reflect on major issues, but we are unable to find strategies and solutions for the day-to-day teaching.

Since this magazine in the past, and sang a mea culpa about it often fell into brainy analysis and theoretical postulates that while are necessary and of interest to many readers, we depart considerably from the real needs of those who believe in film as a teaching strategy and want to implement in the classroom. To overcome all this we decided to create the Special Making Of , some numbers that were treated general issues from a very practical point of view and trying to offer our readers concrete resources for film work from the classroom in a more practical way.

And special is what the reader has in his hands. And a special dedicated to the Education for Peace

Peace, education and cinema

For years, curricular approaches contemplate the incorporation of a number of competencies that are not confined solely to areas related to the content. There are certain universal values ​​that necessarily have to sensitize and educate the kids as present and future citizens. All these aspects, as you know our readers, are included within the so-called transverse axes.

Topics such as health, consumer, equal opportunity, non-sexist education, solidarity and coexistence are part of these issues are addressed within the school. It seems as necessary as essential in a world where we can not deny or ignore, there is more than evident crisis of values. However, this type of education in attitudes and habits is a slow and difficult process, because it is something that all parties involved have to contribute their bit: educators, families, the media or the general public, They are some of the institutions that must be involved in the teaching of values ​​and must ensure that the concept of integral education is as broad as possible.

Within these themes, one of the highlights is the Education for Peace and Coexistence.

11We all know the past of human beings, so it is absolutely necessary to work for the present and the future certain errors are not repeated. As a species we have evolved towards a progress that while in the fields of science and medicine are impressive, in other areas it is still very far from being realized. Probably our ancestors, grandparents and great-grandparents and dreamed of a world in which there were no conflicts that cause harm to people and a society in which our obvious, logical and understandable discrepancies were resolved by means of dialogue and negotiation.

Today there are more than forty armed conflicts in the world. Conflicts which, moreover, are causing pain, suffering and hardship to many people in the world. Therefore largely we depend on our children, adolescents and youth to change things for the better. Therefore, it is very important that students acquire "tools" and procedures to achieve this purpose and they assume values ​​that translate into positive attitudes and habits of coexistence. Very probably Therefore, educating for peace is a goal defended at all costs by all sectors of the educational community. The current world situation demands a strong school performance on this particular point.

Perhaps for this reason, in the curriculum there is a specific reference to the Peace Education as a fundamental element in the education of students. Since schools it is making an effort for our students develop attitudes and behaviors consistent with justice, respect, tolerance, dialogue, negotiation and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

The big problem is that our society covers so much violence, explicit and implicit, that is very difficult to give adequate responses to the bombing, especially if done from the perspective of a wrong approach. Many times, seeking political correctness, we fall into paradigms decontextualized from reality and full of ingenuity that contribute nothing positive to the educational action. We consider certain issues have to be addressed from a more direct and forceful view.

Item more. The mass media inundate us with information about the aggressiveness and violence, so that "the violent" undervalues ​​"the peaceful" of the majority; on the other hand it is true that the use of violence and the rough is a majority among the "issues" that are offered as "leisure" citizens (cinema, TV, video games, comics and even literature). It is one thing clear: for all are talking about censorship or media only focused on positive messages. Freedom is above everything, but it is undeniable that violent (and not always physical) impacts have a higher incidence in the consciousness of viewers. As noted in these pages, the power of the audiovisual message, for better and for worse, is a forceful beyond doubt.

But before the undeniably involving violence offered by the mass media , since this magazine we propose an exercise in reverse. It's simple: If the television, movies, video games offer continually violent messages, why not use the same means to raise the opposite message. If our students are enthralled to, for instance, the last action production made ​​in Hollywood , why not use the same strategy to deliver the opposite message?

This is precisely what we intend to carry out in the following pages we offer: offer a number of securities in which the main message is peace;about securities in which violence has negative consequences and causes pain and suffering; some titles, in short, where the audiovisual discourse is articulated in terms of a pacifist and anti-war message.

We are fully convinced that the film, which is capable of changing views and make us think about the world we live in, also allow us to understand what the consequences of violence and what to advocate for Education for Peace.

Fortunately there are many films that advocate a speech in favor of peace and nonviolence. Among this sample of films, of which you'll find a wide assortment of some of the items that make up the magazine, we've selected titles that seem especially significant. So, what we have tried to offer various themes dealing tapes but they have a common link: the critique of violence. In addition, we consider it important that these films reflect real situations that allow our students understand what the real dimension of the problem. We advocate an emotional immersion in the films, for work of empathy in which we are able to identify with the situations and understand the scope thereof. Only this way will go deeper in the minds of our students (because ultimately it comes to that) and cause a change in your vision of what is and represents violence.

The movies

The ten titles that the reader will find here are as varied as interesting. In Harrison's Flowers we traveled to Bosnia to see a heartbreaking and very successful film showing the Yugoslavia war in all its horror. Chronicle of a butcher, uncensored, with all the harshness, which causes it hurts to see certain things because you know they have occurred. Although the vehicle is a love story to the limit (is it possible that a love take you to the gates of hell?), The film is very touching. The barbarism that was reached, and perfect and starkly reflected in the film leaves you paralyzed. In no time you think about the love story: the film is seen as if it were a documentary. It is hard, heartbreaking, necessary: ​​feature images.

No Man's Land continue in the former Yugoslavia. Short story of two enemy soldiers found in an abandoned trench. A Bosnian Muslim and a Bosnian Serb. A discussion of who started the war that are tucked mark their relationship. The question, as the pose is who this or that village burned first. The war in Yugoslavia is presented as a banal conflict between hooligans . This is coupled with a soldier of the peacekeepers trying to mediate and a journalist determined to collect images of the conflict to turn it into a media spectacle. Yes, that was the war. Absurd, as all.

11Days of Glory (Glory Days) leads to the Second World War. Hard, yet very emotional way of understanding a very recent part of our history in this old and hypocritical Europe. Far from integrating this has been, and will be, the perfect counterweight to maintain homeostasis between First and Third Worlds. We never let anything change.

And now we go to Iraq with Turtles Can Fly . There are few films that show such baseness and brutality of poverty and social reality of societies. Those who do it and get impress or tell a coherent story with a moral vision of the world can be counted on fingers. This is one of them: a hard film; artistically brilliant but without frills cinematic film. This makes it just really raw and showing both situations and scenarios and lives of the characters, in this case children seeking mines ancient wars in Iraq just before the US occupation

In Letters from Iwo Jima see WWII from the point of view of the Japanese. This is one of the best antiwar films and engages you, makes you part of the story. It shows the human side of war, conflicts and viewpoints of the soldiers.Not all films that address these issues have this facility. He talks about the ideals and respect for our principles. In the same war settles down The Boy in the Striped Pajamas . Based on a famous bestseller , the film tells the story of friendship between two boys in one of the most harsh and cruel contexts of history: the concentration camp of Auschwitz. A tape required viewing in any school.

The confrontation with death, desolation, with the oppressive atmosphere of violence experienced in war, it is not surprising that again emerge quite naturally once all that horror is allegedly left there. And that is really scary. That violence only begets violence is something we already knew, but when someone tells us so starkly and masterful as does the marvelous In the Valley of Elah , can make that message stronger than ever.

11With all that has given him the war movies, we rarely had a chance to see the cruelty and barbarity of war from the perspective of those at home and receive the news of the death of a relative. This is what makes Grace Is Gone , an extraordinary film that leaves a residue of sadness that aa surely make us reflect.

The Hurt Locker shows us the consequences of the war from a different perspective, developing an atmosphere of almost unbearable tension. The sharp increase in the adrenaline of this squad is reflected in the conflicts that have in their personalities, their family ties and their fears classes. We see that this is no game, it becomes apparent meaninglessness and affects, inevitably, the life of those who live nearby. Of all who live.

A well-told story, a credible historical context and dramatically recreated some breathtaking scenes and tone of wonderful children's fable. All this is War Horse (workhorse) , an impossible mix of war and chronic children's story, very good on both sides, which can help us to address the issue of pacifism from an original point of view and emotionally intense. A film that offers many possibilities.

Here are the selected titles. Hopefully, as we said at the beginning, I offer sufficient learning opportunities to work them in class with your students. It is our greatest desire.



The infused water market is exaggerated and is the new shed the body fight the major economic groups.

Ardila Lülle when the organization announced in 1992 the production of beer Leone, which will go on sale later this year, the beverage market shook. Immediately, their competence, the Santo Domingo group came to the rescue with the launch, in June last year, Cola and Pola. In times of opening one thing was clear, and had no supremacy in any business or demarcated areas of influence. The beverage business began to move a year ago and is still the epicenter of new battles. The scenario of dispute is now the juice market. Santo Domingo acquired in July 1993, the factory concentrates and fruit juices Tutti Frutti, hitherto owned by a traditional family Antioquia. He immediately announced that six months later build factories in major cities and cover the country.Just two weeks, Postobon, the Organization Ardila Lulle ago, brought to market its juices and announced the "nationalization" of its production and marketing. In these conditions the business turned red. The truth is that Tutti Frutti, one year after passing the control of Santo Domingo, is not out of Antioquia and the Old Caldas, and is only known in the country for which it is distributed as an accompanying drink during flights of Avianca. Before the launch of the Postobón juices, to Tutti Frutti he was left with no choice but to accelerate its expansion. Before the end of August release their juices all over the country, reformulate and adopt new presentations flavors But while that happens, their smaller rivals neither will they be left with arms crossed. Colombia currently has a dozen medium-sized enterprises which for years drove at will this market, but now face major league competitors. The sector had become almost a fiefdom of certain regional brands. But today, with the power distribution group Santo Domingo and Ardila Lulle, things are different price. The process of selection of new products Tutti Frutti and Postobón be national. That forces companies to change their traditional way of doing things. BUSINESS The Colombian juice market is basically composed of the Orange (50 percent), other flavors (20 percent), nectar (15 percent) and soft-except gaseosas- fruity (15 percent). Juices usually have a concentration of natural fruit by 100 percent. The natural product applies a tonic for maintaining and improving their nutritional conditions. For nectars, fruit concentration is in the order of 40 percent and soft drinks, which are diluted product containing 8 percent of fruit juice on average. From the viewpoint of the product, some juices classified into two categories: cooled and uncooled. Usually the first used as packaging glass or plastic bottle, while the latter have adopted new packaging technologies known as aluminum foil, Tetra Brik and Tetra Pak. Furthermore, the distribution channels in this industry are primarily supermarkets, small shops and some notable institutions that house numbers of people as clubs, hotels, restaurants, etc. One thing is clear. The business has a typical regional market. In Bogota, the stronghold for the juice business, market leaders: Canary (of the Colombian Society of Citrus), Piti of Coljugos, tropical juices, and produced by Hill Country Meals de Colombia SA has excelled Atlantic Coast California . In Valle del Cauca Orense is well known brand, which belongs to the family Grajales.In Barranquilla Pulpy juices are popular, and although each company has a regional market, all maintain a restricted distribution nationwide. In Medellin, moreover, the thing is getting good. Tutti Frutti juices and now there are traditional Postobón enters the area. And in Bogota titanic struggle he will also concentrate. The juices of the Organization Ardila Lulle are imported from the factory Ryalcao shakes, owned conglomerate whose production plants are located in the outskirts of Madrid (Spain). The Postobón juices are in the category of 100 percent natural and are packaged in Tetra Brik Slim type. Since Spain is distributed, apart from Colombia, Portugal, Italy and other European countries. The presence of juices Postobón in the country began to prepare since mid 1993. The main flavor in family size juice is orange. There are a variety of flavors in personal sizes.According to Fernando Montaño, Postobón marketing manager, "the idea is to enter the domestic market, first in large cities and then spread to the entire country. This soft infrastructure that has Postobón used and therefore the distribution handles the organization of soda. In this way we are able to distribuirle the product to more than 360,000 potential customers throughout the national territory. " But the news of Postobón also include the launch of liter size packaging Tetra Brik, and the possibility of add two more flavors in the products of staff size. On the future of the market, Montaño believes that the juice category in Colombia may occur in the next three years, an average annual increase of 12 percent. "Faced with this scenario, we have considered investing over 12 million dollars to build a leading position in the beverage segment," he adds. The truth is that not only has Postobón a recognized brand, but also has a good advertising and marketing support, and one of the most comprehensive distribution network in the country. Everything indicates that the fight in that segment will be fierce. More Ingredients The current market exceeds 30 million liters per year (see chart). Until 1992 the market stagnated.However, with the presence of new competitors, the business has had a growth of 20 to 30 percent in real terms. For companies that have developed the market, considered medium type, the presence of two large as Tutti Frutti juices and Postobón before a challenge is a new development in market growth because strong advertising campaigns will stimulate consumption and The fight will also be on prices. "The business gives to everyone," said a businessman WEEK. Even advertising is changing consumer habits in an effort to replace the drinkers freshly squeezed juices processed by notorious juice nutritional value. However, the market for Colombian juices can be categorized as small.Venezuela, for example, has a market five times larger in size with a production that exceeds 150 million liters per year. In addition, the juice industry in the country has lags in technological terms and a low level of product diversification. Although Bogotá is still the largest market, and most producers concentrate on its outskirts, there are other potentially important regions as the Atlantic Coast. Hoping juice producers is that their products compete with the market of soda. In addition, some as Hill Country are entering tropical juice blends in an effort to diversify the market. This approach, according to the sector study carried out in recent months Monitor, it is a strategic advantage for those producers who have in mind exports their juices. In addition, the study "the historical market growth Colombian juices presented in non-traditional juices. Between 1991 and 1992, a ineremento 20.2 percent in the number of products with mango, passion fruit and guava are presented". Moreover, according to the same work on competitiveness for exporters of juices the US market becomes increasingly attractive, "juice consumption has increased in the last seven years." In figures, the US per capita consumption increased from 8.8 gallons per year in 1982 to 11.8 gallons in 1992. And the good news for Colombian producers is that "much of that increase is due to a ineremento consumption exotic flavors. "According to the same producers sector is quite heterogeneous and faces a structural problem on the supply of raw materials. For them this factor is a bottleneck that limits the growth of the market for fruit production areas are scattered throughout the country. They are also aware of the absence of a trade organization to defend them and become a valid interlocutor with the government to design and develop coherent sectoral policies to their needs. And faith that they will need because the fight is upon you with great will be tough.

How to create an illustration for a shirt – for dummies

Many of you ask us about the design of the shirts and you have doubts about how to make an illustration to create a shirt on our platform. Hmm … making a picture for a shirt is simple but there are a few steps that you need to know if you want to create a picture with success.

There are many, many ways to design, but if you do not have much experience or do not know how to use professional design tools like Photoshop or Ilustrator, here we leave a tutorial for DUMMIES.

Size of the Illustration / drawing / design

The size depends on the size of the shirt. But in general terms and although there are no standard measures, the most appropriate size to illustrate a shirt would be the following:

-             Measurements of the image :

305 mm x 305 mm

2100 x 2100 pixels or 3300 × 4300 pixels

11 x 11 inches

Color Mode: RGB

-       Resolution:

The image should be a large, high-quality image using 300 dpi (dots per inch) instead of the usual ones (72 DPI). If you are using Photoshop or Ilustrator, then you have to select this option in the initial configuration when you open a “new” file.

Of course, in  an undisclosed t-shirt you have the possibility to adjust the size in our customizer, so the measurements are approximate. But it’s always better to design for the larger size t-shirt and then fit it !!



The idea, the theme is the first thing to decide when designing. Keep in mind that it is not the same design for a cup or a poster as for a camsieta. There is a magical question when it comes to thinking about the design of a shirt:

Why would anyone buy this item? And Who am I designing for? It is not the same design for the friki of Friki imedia that for the salted ones of  Pintxopote.

Do not try to count too many things in the design, Less is more! Keep in mind that it is much better to suggest a message than to fill the data tee …


To create the Enlightenment it is better to have a graphic design program, such as Adobe Photoshop . If you do not have this program, remember that there is the free and free version of The Gimp (in this link you can download the latest stable version).

Open the program and create a new image by selecting “File”, then “New”. Enter the size of the artwork using the “Inches” option to get a better estimate of the actual print size of your images. Select ” 300 ” in the “PPP” menu before creating the new image within the details section.

Keep in mind, humanoid, that the illustration should be saved as .psd so that you can then attach the background (transparent) to that of the shirt of your choice.


When designing an image for a shirt, a maximum of four colors (plus the bottom of the shirt) must be used. That is, you have five colors with which to make an illustration that is balanced and easy to combine.

You have to avoid having very large areas of the same color. In that case, it is still better to leave certain areas “transparent” so that the bottom of the shirt can be seen.
It is much better not to abuse the gradients, and make sure they stay the same on all scales. Keep in mind that they can change the focus when the shirt is seen from far away as when you approach. Learn more here